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编辑 | 删除 《东京物语》by David Bordwell

ToKillA-TVSet 发布于:
*原载Criterion Collection网站,翻译水平有限,各位有空帮忙指正。版权归原作者所有,谢绝转载。



When Tokyo Story was released in late 1953, Western audiences were just being exposed to Japanese cinema. Akira Kurosawa had made his breakthrough with Rashomon three years earlier, and Kenji Mizoguchi was moving to the forefront of the international festival scene. In 1955 Teinosuke Kinugasa’s Gate of Hell would win two Academy Awards. The time would have been ripe for a very different sort of Japanese film to arrive on the global stage. Yet Ozu remained unknown abroad, chiefly because decision-makers considered him “too Japanese” to be exported.
《东京物语》于1953年上映时,西方观众正开始接触日本电影——三年前黑泽明拍出了极具突破性的《罗生门》;沟口健二也渐渐登上国际电影节的前台;1955年衣笠贞之助的《地狱门》赢得了2项OSCAR奖。至此,将一种别具风格的日本电影推上世界舞台的时机已经成熟。尽管当时小津在国外并不出名,其原因可归结为国内那些决策者嫌他的电影过于“日本化”的缘故。

Although other Ozu films were shown sporadically in Europe and the U.K., it was Tokyo Story that broke the barrier. There were screenings here and there in the mid-1950s, an award from the British Film Institute in 1958, and screening programs organized by Donald Richie and other enterprising programmers. Then it opened in New York in 1972, coinciding with the publication of Paul Schrader’s Transcendental Style in Film, and it won the hearts of influential critics. When Richie’s Ozu was published, two years later, critics came to realize that this quiet filmmaker was one of cinema’s finest artists. In the 1992 and 2002 Sight and Sound international critics’ polls, Tokyo Story was ranked as one of the ten greatest films ever made.
尽管其他的小津电影早先已零星见于欧洲和英国的电影院,然而却是《东京物语》正式冲破了藩篱,(让观众接受了这位日本导演)。50年代中期,小津电影的展映活动遍及西方各处,并于1958年赢得了一座英国学院奖,进而Donald Richie及其他有见地的组织者为小津电影安排了数次展映讨论活动。而后的1972年,展映荧幕在纽约拉开,与当时Paul Schrader的著作《电影中的先验风格》出版相映成趣,并攻取了那些头面评论家的心。两年后当Richie的《小津》出版时,评论家们意识到这个“平静”的电影人其实是个杰出的电影艺术家。在1992-1993年度《影与响》杂志国际影评人联席会上,《东京物语》入选有史以来十佳影片之列。

The capricious way in which this film entered world film culture might make us suspect that its success is accidental. Surely Late Spring (1949) and Early Summer (1951), to cite only two examples, are no less excellent? Ozu himself hinted at a reservation: “This is one of my most melodramatic pictures.” Yet Tokyo Story turns out to be a remarkably replete introduction to his distinct world. It contains in miniature a great many of the qualities that enchant his admirers and move audiences, no matter how distant, to tears.
这种带点离奇意味的成功方式使人们怀疑这个电影进入世界电影文化圈可能是出于偶然。《晚春》(1949)和《麦秋》(1951)(笔者仅引两例),难道就不够杰出了?小津自己给出了一个保留性的暗示:“这个是我最具有情节性的电影之一。”那《东京物语》应然是对于小津独特电影世界的昭然而全然的阐释。在细节上它包含了诸多令其仰慕者着迷及令普通观众(无论他们的思想距离有多遥远)潸然泪下的特质。

There is, first of all, the mundane story. Ozu and his scriptwriter, Kogo Noda, often centered their plots upon getting a daughter married, a situation around which an array of characters’ lives could be revealed. But Tokyo Story lacks even this minimal plot drive; it carries to a limit Ozu’s faith that everyday life, rendered tellingly, provides more than enough drama to engage us deeply. An elderly couple leave the tiny town of Onomichi to visit their children and grandchildren. Inevitably, they trouble their hosts; inevitably, they feel guilty; inevitably, the children cut corners and neglect them. In the course of the trip, the old folks become aware of both the virtues and vanities of their offspring. On the train ride home, the mother is stricken, and shortly thereafter, she dies.
首先,这是一个世俗的故事。小津和他的编剧搭档野田高梧,经常将他们的故事中心围绕着女儿的即将出嫁展开一连串相关人物的境遇变化。然而《东京物语》缺少了这个最基本的情节动机;但它承载着一个小津电影的基本因素:将日常生活缓缓地铺叙呈现,进而带给我们更多剧情不能催生的体验。一对老迈的夫妇离开他们居住的小镇尾道去探望他们的儿孙。他们不可避免地打搅了他们儿女的生活,于是儿女们为图省事便开始疏远他们。在他俩的这段旅程中,老俩口亲历他们子女生活的酸甜苦辣。在回程的列车上,母亲染病,许久去世。

This arc of action conceals a strong and cunning structure. After leaving their youngest child, Kyoko, behind, the Hirayamas are shown visiting their children in descending birth order. First they stay with Koichi and his family, then with Shige and hers, then with Noriko (who married their third-born child), and finally with young Keizo in Osaka. Offscreen, they have visited Keizo first en route to Tokyo, but Ozu and his scenarist, Yoshikata Yoda, portray only their stopover during their return trip—partly to allow us to form expectations about how hospitable their youngest son will be, but also to respect the family-tree structure. (Ozu had experimented with this device in his first extended-family film, Brothers and Sisters of the Toda Family of [1941].)
剧情的张力被隐藏在一个精巧而明晰的结构下。在剧中,平山老俩口告别他们最小的孩子京子,然后按辈分先后顺序拜访了他们的子女。起先他们和长子幸一的家人住在一起,后来和长女金子及她的家人,而后和二儿媳纪子,最后在大阪和小儿子敬三。此前已交代他们已经在往东京途中与他相遇,而小津和他的编剧依田义贤只交代了他们回程途中他们在敬三处的短暂逗留—这不仅使我们建构起对敬三好客善良品行的期待,同时也遵从了家族中的长幼次序。(小津早在他的第一部作品《小早川家的秋天》(1941)中就已经对这种叙事方式进行了实验。)

This patterning would seem over neat were it not carefully buried in a wealth of details of gesture and speech, from the frantic energy of the grandsons (one whistles the theme from John Ford’s Stagecoach) to the plaintiveness of the elderly fathers fretting over their sons’ failures. Again and again, personality emerges through concise comparisons. The businesswoman, Shige, is hardheaded enough to pack a funeral kimono for the trip home, but it never occurs to Noriko that Tomi will die, so she is unprepared. Who can say which woman is the more virtuous? Jane Austen, Anton Chekhov—these are the artists who come to mind when we confront a story told through such tactful revelations of temperament and states of mind. Yet there is nothing mild about Ozu’s tact; it acquires a stringent poignancy. “What a treat,” reflects Tomi, “to sleep in my dead son’s bed.”
从年少起身的子孙们不羁的言行(其中一个口中哼唱着John Ford《关山飞渡》的旋律),到那些为子孙的失败而焦虑不堪的父辈们的言语,若非这些纷繁琐碎的的言语动作,情节便有落于过分简单之嫌。数次简明来往,人情冷暖尽现。金子十分自信地带上了丧服回老家,然而作为儿媳妇纪子的却没有料到婆婆会死,所以她措手不及。谁能说世界上哪个女人更为纯良?简.奥斯汀?安东.契诃夫?这是我们遭遇小津电影中这样恰如其分的情感和心境表露时必然想到的两位作家。至今仍没有人如小津般娴熟地驾驭“温柔”二字;当你听到婆婆感慨道:“多么盛情的款待啊,让我睡在自己死去儿子的床上”,一阵酸楚便夺眶而出。

Tokyo Story also exemplifies Ozu’s unique style—low camera height, 180-degree cuts, virtually no camera movements, and shots linked through overlapping bits of space. In dialogue scenes Ozu refuses to cut away from a speaking character; it’s as if every person has the right to be heard in full. Other films use his distinctive techniques more playfully, but here he seems chiefly concerned with creating a quiet world against which his characters’ personalities stand out.
《东京物语》也是小津电影风格的绝佳范本---低视角,180度越轴剪辑,固定机位,还有相似性的镜头组接。对话场景中小津拒绝在人物说话时进行剪辑;好似每个说话者都有全然被观众听见的权利。其他的小津电影使用这种独特的剪辑技巧多少带有戏噱的成分,但是在这个电影里,他似乎更加执着于建构一个宁静的世界,来突显与其角色抱怨的世界间的对抗。

The same delicate poise emerges in a refusal to tilt the scales. It would be easy to sentimentalize Shukichi, for instance, but when he staggers back drunk from his reunion, Shige remarks how he’s reverted to his old ways. The implication is that his carousing once caused family problems. (This resonates after Tomi’s death: “If I’d known things would come to this, I’d have been kinder to her.”) The warm-hearted Noriko confesses to forgetting occasionally about her dead husband, measuring herself against a cruelly high standard. Likewise, most of the siblings aren’t deeply selfish, just preoccupied and caught up in the lives they have made for themselves. Even Shige, whom Western viewers are inclined to censure, surprises us with her sudden, copious, utterly sincere burst of tears at her mother’s death; and her harsh edges are mitigated by the fact that she’s played by Haruko Sugimura, one of Japan’s most beloved female performers.
同样微妙的平衡关系包含在人物品格的取舍上。例如我们很容易同情平山,但当他摇摇晃晃地醉酒而归后,金子抱怨他又回复了以前的老毛病,并暗示他的放纵曾经导致家庭纠纷。(这点在母亲死后老人的话中产生了共鸣:“早知如此,当初我就应该对她好点。”),将心比心,即便热心的纪子也承认她有时候也会忘记她死去的丈夫。推而广之,那些兄弟姐妹也并不是极端自私的人,而是过分地专注于如何打理好自己的生活。甚至是那个金子,也因为在母亲死后发出的突如其来地,但是却情真意切的哭声使先前多倾向于将之贬义理解的西方观众所震惊;而且她的锋芒也因扮演者是日本著名女演员杉村村子而被削弱了。

Thanks to Ozu’s compassionate detachment, the final scenes take on enormous richness of feeling as we watch characters contemplate their futures. Noriko smilingly tells Kyoko that “life is disappointing”; Shukichi assures Noriko that she must remarry; the neighbor jovially warns Shukichi that now he’ll be lonely. Yet the momentous revelations are tempered by the poetic resonance of everyday acts and objects. Shukichi greets a beautiful sunrise—signaling another day of brisk fanning and plucking at one’s kimono. An ordinary wristwatch links mother, daughter, and daughter-in-law in a lineage of hard-earned feminine wisdom. And the roar of a train dies down, leaving only the throbbing of a boat in the bay.
仰赖小津人性化的间离技巧,当我们注视着最后一幕中角色们忧虑地考虑着自己的将来时,此间呈现出一种富于浓烈情感的寓意。纪子笑着对京子说“生活是失望的”;平山劝告纪子必须再婚;邻居善意地提醒老人现在他将是独身一人了。而这些强烈的情感流露被那些富于诗意化的日常行为和物景给淡化了。平山望着美丽的初升红日---预示新的充满活力的和收获的一天的到来。一块普通的手表把母亲、女儿和儿媳妇联系进了由苦心经营的血缘关系维系的柔性智慧中。火车唠叨去,空舟湾中弋。

[b]*David Bordwell对本人影响比较大,市面上的两本未名书库的书籍可以当电影入门典籍来看。
个人主页:
http://www.davidbordwell.net/
*Donald Richie部分资料参见:
http://www.stonebridge.com/RICHIEREADER/richiereader.html
http://www.midnighteye.com/interviews/donald_richie.shtml[/b]
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